PAMAP Program LiDAR Processing/Contour Enhancement Lines of Pennsylvania


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:PAMAP Program, PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
Publication_Date:20061213
Title:
PAMAP Program LiDAR Processing/Contour Enhancement Lines of Pennsylvania
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:vector digital data
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Middletown, PA
Publisher:PAMAP Program, PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
Online_Linkage: http://www.pasda.psu.edu/
Description:
Abstract:
This dataset, produced by the PAMAP Program, consists of vectors used to classify LiDAR points and aesthetically enhance contour lines. The vectors are commonly delineated along features such as road edges, railroads, bridge decks, double line hydro (20' wide and greater), lakes and ponds, swamps and marshes, and extreme terrain breaks (cliffs, retaining walls, etc.). PAMAP data are organized into blocks, which do not have gaps or overlaps, that represent 10,000 feet by 10,000 feet on the ground. The coordinate system for blocks in the northern half of the state is Pennsylvania State Plane North (datum:NAD83, units: feet); blocks in the southern half of the state are in Pennsylvania State Plane South. A block name is formed by concatenating the first four digits of the State Plane northing and easting defining the block's northwest corner, the State identifier "PA", and the State Plane zone designator "N" or "S" (e.g. 45001210PAS).
Purpose:
These data are provided solely for use as an ancillary reference layer to PAMAP topographic survey products. These vectors are not designed to support hydraulic applications and do NOT meet FEMA's Guidelines and Specifications for Flood Hazard Mapping Partners (Appendix A: Guidance for Aerial Mapping & Surveying, Section A.8, April 2003).
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date:20060321
Ending_Date:20060502
Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Status:
Progress:Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:Unknown
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate:-76.073628
East_Bounding_Coordinate:-76.036594
North_Bounding_Coordinate:41.197361
South_Bounding_Coordinate:41.169383
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus:ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword:DEM
Theme_Keyword:contours
Theme_Keyword:topography
Theme_Keyword:LiDAR
Theme_Keyword:breaklines
Theme_Keyword:imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:None
Place_Keyword:Pennsylvania
Access_Constraints:None
Use_Constraints:
The Originator, Publisher and Distributor exclude any and all implied warranties and make no warranty or representation with respect to the data files or accompanying documentation, including quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. These data files and documentation are provided 'as is' and the User assumes the entire risk as to their quality and performance.  The Originator and Publisher, as indicated in the metadata, should be clearly cited in any product derived from this data. Any modifications to this data must be described in any digital or hardcopy product derived from this data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Organization:PAMAP Program, PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
Contact_Position:Director
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing and physical address
Address:
PAMAP Program
Address:
PA DCNR Topographic and Geologic Survey
Address:
3240 Schoolhouse Road
City:Middletown
State_or_Province:PA
Postal_Code:17057
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:(717) 702-2053
Hours_of_Service:0800-1630
Data_Set_Credit:
PAMAP Program, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.2.5.1450
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The accuracy of the ground control is confirmed by the evaluation of the results of the analytical bundle adjustment.  The residuals of the final adjustment ensured compliance with NSSDA standards.  The Pre Adjustment Gross Error Detection Statistical Test (Data Snooping, with a confidence level of 99.9%) have been applied to all observations included in the aerial triangulations. To detect small gross errors, during Adjustment Robust Estimators were used with the same confidence level and a power of the test of 1-beta=0.2. Systematic errors were eliminated through self calibration and through Additional Parameters. Their numerical stability, statistical significance, internal and external reliability were checked using Student-t test with the same confidence level and Variance/Co-variance analysis. Finally, the arrived variance factor C was submitted to a Chi-square test against the pre-adjustment variance factor using a confidence level 99.9%.  

During the scanning of the original aerial film, the image histogram for each frame is carefully examined to ensure that the image has been scanned so that the minimum and maximum brightness values are captured to eliminate any loss of detail due to saturation of dark or light areas.  

The LiDAR flying height, field of view, laser repetition rate, aircraft speed, and the maximum baseline distances from the aerial platform to the ground based GPS stations have been fine tuned to ensure an RMSEz of the processed data at the 18.5 cm level for the base earth surface as required by the FEMA guidelines.

See the PAMAP Technical Proposal dated January 11, 2006 for further QA/QC procedures.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
All files are inspected by the Production Manager to ensure that they conform to the specified file naming conventions, all files load in their correct geographic position, all files conform to the project specifications for file standard and content.
Completeness_Report:
All files are visually inspected for completeness to ensure that no gaps or misplacement exists in the data.  The files have been checked to ensure that the boundary and the content has been covered in its entirety.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The horizontal accuracy standard follows the NSSDA-1998 standard.  The maximum permissible RMSE for 95% of the horizontal check points for the mapping product is 5 feet or better.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The vertical accuracy will meet the requirements of NSSDA at the 95% confidence interval (1.96 x RMSE).
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:RETTEW Associates, Inc.
Publication_Date:20060424
Title:
GPS Photo Control Survey
Type_of_Source_Media:CD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:20060424
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
GPS Ground Control
Source_Contribution:
GPS control points are used to support the acquisition of the imagery and LiDAR data.  Photo identifiable ground control points (panels) based on the control plan are utilized in the analytical aerotriangulation process.  A number of "blind-point" panels were established and used during the QA/QC check of the orthophotos, LiDAR data and contour information.  All horizontal and vertical control was prepared under the supervision of licensed Professional Land Surveyors.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Photo Science, Inc.
Publication_Date:20060411
Title:
Color Aerial Photography
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:remote-sensing image
Source_Scale_Denominator:19200
Type_of_Source_Media:filmstrip
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date:20050409
Ending_Date:20050411
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Aerial Photography
Source_Contribution:
Color aerial photography to be used in the creation of digital orthophotos, breaklines, and topographic contours.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Photo Science, Inc.
Publication_Date:20060502
Title:
LiDAR
Type_of_Source_Media:disc
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date:20060321
Ending_Date:20060502
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Raw LiDAR
Source_Contribution:
LiDAR elevation data used in the creation of the terrain surface.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Horizontal and Vertical control points were acquired utilizing GPS collection techniques.  All control was prepared under the supervision of licensed Professional Land Surveyors.
Process_Date:20060424
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation:
GPS Ground Control
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Aerial photography utilizing airborne GPS techniques was acquired with 60% forward overlap and 30% sidelap at an altitude of 9600' AMT producing a negative scale of 1" = 1600'.  Aerial photography was exposed on color negative aerial film.
Process_Date:20050411
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation:
Aerial Photography
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Softcopy aerotriangulation utilizes the GPS ground control, airborne GPS data, and image coordinate measurements which are run through bundle block adjustment software computing the exterior orientation parameters for each image of the photogrammetric project.  The original aerial film was scanned utilizing a precision photogrammetric scanner at a resolution of 12.5 microns.  Using these scans the aerotriangulation process employs a rigorous mathematical model which detects measurement errors, and corrects for systematic image distorion, film shrikage, atmospheric refraction and camera lens distortions.  The final bundle adjustment results are inspected to ensure that the RMSE meets the required 1 part in 10000.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
GPS Ground Control
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
Aerial Photography
Process_Date:20051206
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation:
Analytical Aerotriangulation
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
LiDAR collection and processing generally adhered to FEMA Guidelines and Specifications for Flood Hazard Mapping Partners, Appendix A: Guidance for Aerial Mapping & Surveying, Section A.8: Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Surveys.  Raw LiDAR data was collected using a sensor equipped with an airborne GPS/IMU system.  Flight lines with a 30% sidelap were flown with a nominal average LiDAR point spacing of 1.4 meters using a 43 degree field of view (full angle) at a laser pulse rate of 40.6 kHz.  The raw LiDAR data is processed and filtered to remove LiDAR points on elevated features such as vegetation, buildings, cars, etc. in order to create a bare earth surface meeting the accuracies required for orthophoto and contour generation.  
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
Raw LiDAR
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
GPS Ground Control
Process_Date:20061114
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation:
Processed LiDAR
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Photogrammetrically compiled breaklines were collected along various planimetric features and significant breaks in grade.  The elevation values for the breaklines were populated from the LiDAR data maintaining the horizontal position as captured photogrammetrically.  The breaklines are tiled and converted to ESRI 3D Shapefiles.  Topology checks are performed to find errors in edgematching, dangles, and intersections.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
Aerial Photography
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
Analytical Aerotriangulation
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
Processed LiDAR
Process_Date:20061127
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation:
ESRI 3D Breakline Shapefile
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Metadata imported.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
K:\billk\metadata\723_Luzerne_New\BL_Shape\metadata.xml
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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method:Vector
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type:String
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count:851
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name:Lambert Conformal Conic
Lambert_Conformal_Conic:
Lambert Conformal Conic
Standard_Parallel:40.883333
Standard_Parallel:41.950000
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian:-77.750000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin:40.166667
False_Easting:1968500.000000
False_Northing:0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method:coordinate pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution:0.000000
Ordinate_Resolution:0.000000
Planar_Distance_Units:survey feet
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name:North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name:Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis:6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio:298.257222
Vertical_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Altitude_System_Definition:
Altitude_Datum_Name:North American Vertical Datum of 1988
Altitude_Resolution:0.000328
Altitude_Distance_Units:feet
Altitude_Encoding_Method:Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates
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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label:PAMAP Breaklines
Attribute:
Attribute_Label:FID
Attribute_Definition:
Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label:Shape
Attribute_Definition:
Feature geometry.
Attribute_Definition_Source:
ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Coordinates defining the features.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label:B_Line_Ty
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
This shapefile contains photogrammetrically captured breaklines.  Breaklines were collected along various planimetric features and significant breaks in grade.  

The attribute B_Line_Ty describes the breakline type: Paved Roads; Unpaved Roads; Single Line Drains; Lakes & Ponds; Other Hydro Features; Double Line Drains; Other Breaklines; Railroads.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Where applicable, all data conforms to the PAMAP Technical Proposal dated January 11, 2006.
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA)
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing and physical address
Address:
Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA)
Address:
Penn State Institutes of Energy and the Environment
Address:
115 Land and Water Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:PA
Postal_Code:16802
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:814-863-0104
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:pasda@psu.edu
Resource_Description:Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
The USER shall indemnify, save harmless, and, if requested, defend those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data, their officers, agents, and employees from and against any suits, claims, or actions for injury, death, or property damage arising out of the use of or any defect in the FILES or any accompanying documentation. Those parties involved with the development and distribution excluded any and all implied warranties, including warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose and makes no warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the FILES or accompanying documentation, including its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The FILES and documentation are provided "as is" and the USER assumes the entire risk as to its quality and performance. Those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the FILES or any accompanying documentation.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Transfer_Size:1.068
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:20081022
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:PAMAP Program, PA Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
Contact_Position:Director
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing and physical address
Address:
PAMAP Program
Address:
PA DCNR Topographic and Geologic Survey
Address:
3240 Schoolhouse Road
City:Middletown
State_or_Province:PA
Postal_Code:17057
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:(717) 702-2053
Metadata_Standard_Name:FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version:FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention:local time
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html
Profile_Name:ESRI Metadata Profile
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