PAMAP Program Cycle 1 High Resolution Orthoimage 2003 - 2006


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:PA DCNR Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey and U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date:2003 - 2006
Title:
PAMAP Program Cycle 1 High Resolution Orthoimage 2003 - 2006
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:remote sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publisher:PAMAP program, PA DCNR
Online_Linkage: http://www.pasda.psu.edu/
Description:
Abstract:
An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which displacement of features in the image caused by terrain relief and sensor orientation have been mathematically removed. Orthoimagery combines the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. For this dataset, the natural color orthoimages were produced at 2-feet pixel resolution. The design accuracy is estimated not to exceed 4.8 feet at the 95% confidence level. Each orthoimage provides imagery for a 10,000 by 10,000 feet block on the ground. The projected coordinate system is Pennsylvania State Plane with a NAD83 datum. There is no image overlap been adjacent files. The ortho image filenames were derived from the northwest corner of each ortho tile using the first four digits of the northing and easting coordinates referenced to the Pennsylvania State Plane coordinate system, followed by the State designator "PA", and the State Plane zone designator "S".

Purpose:
These data have been created as a result of the need for having geospatial data immediately available and easily accessible in order to enhance the capability of the USGS and the State of Pennsylvania.
Supplemental_Information:
A few PAMAP imagery tiles have been corrected, and updates have been posted on PASDA. The Quality Assessment review of horizontal accuracy of the 2005 imagery found a localized DEM error in Lycoming County that affected nine tiles. The DEM used for orthorectification of that area has been corrected, and the nine
images have been corrected as well. The tiles are: 41002140PAN, 41002150PAN, 41002160PAN, 42002140PAN, 42002150PAN, 42002160PAN, 43002140PAN, 43002150PAN, and 43002160PAN. Note that this error was in the DEM used for production of the 2005 imagery, not the 2007 LiDAR-derived DEM. In addition, a user discovered a seaming error in the 2006 imagery tile 54001480PAS, in Armstrong County just south of Kittanning. This seam error has been corrected, resulting in updates to imagery tiles 54001470PAS and 54001480PAS. These updated tiles are now available through PASDA.

Corrections have been made to the 2006 LAS and DEM data for tile 35001830PAN in Clearfield County. A user discovered that a farm building artifact was not removed from the bare earth model, resulting in a very localized spike in the DEM. The DEM has been corrected. The points in the LAS file have been
re-classified. The corrected DEM file is now available through PASDA, and the
LAS data is available through the State Data Center.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:2003 - 2006
Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Status:
Progress:Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate:-80.526526
East_Bounding_Coordinate:-74.6904
North_Bounding_Coordinate:42.26775
South_Bounding_Coordinate:39.7014
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus:ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword:rectified photograph
Theme_Keyword:rectified image
Theme_Keyword:orthophoto
Theme_Keyword:natural color orthophoto
Theme_Keyword:orthoimage
Theme_Keyword:image map
Theme_Keyword:Imagery/Base Maps/Earth Cover
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:U.S. Department of Commerce, 1995, Countries, Dependencies, Areas of Special Sovereignty, and Their Principal Administrative Divisions (Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 10-4): Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:U.S. Department of Commerce, 1987, Codes for the Identification of the States, the District of Columbia and the outlying areas of the United States, and associated areas (Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 5-2): Washington, D.C., National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:None
Access_Constraints:None
Use_Constraints:
Please review and agree to this disclaimer before continuing...
 
TERMS OF USE AND DISCLAIMER 
PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS OF USE AND DISCLAIMER CAREFULLY BEFORE DOWNLOADING PAMAP Imagery and Elevation Data. YOU MUST AGREE TO THE DISCLAIMER AND ALL OTHER TERMS PROVIDED BELOW PRIOR TO DOWNLOADING PAMAP GIS DATA. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE, YOU MAY NOT DOWNLOAD PAMAP DATA FROM THIS WEB SITE. 
The Originator, Publisher and Distributor exclude any and all implied warranties and make no warranty or representation with respect to the data files or accompanying documentation, including quality, performance, merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. These data files and documentation are provided 'as is' and the User assumes the entire risk as to their quality and performance. 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Office for Information Technology
5 Technology Park
Harrisburg, PA 17110
Data_Set_Credit:
EarthData International of Maryland, LLC
EarthData Aviation
BAE ADR
TerraSurv, Inc
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Z/I Imaging Orthopro 4.0, Windows NT/2000 Systems
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
During photographic reproduction of the source photographs, limited analog dodging (radiometric editing) is performed to improve image quality. Analog dodging consists of holding back light from certain areas of the sensitized photographic material to avoid overexposure. The diapositive is inspected to ensure clarity and radiometric uniformity. Diapositive image brightness values are collected with a minimum of image quality manipulation. Image brightness values may deviate from the brightness values of the original images because of image value interpolation during the scanning and rectification processes. Radiometry is verified by visual inspection of the digital orthophoto with the original unrectified image to determine if the digital orthophoto has the same or better image quality as the original unrectified input image. Slight systematic radiometric differences can be detected between adjacent orthoimage files; these are due primarily to differences in source photograph capture dates and sun angles along flight lines when the aerial photographs were taken. These differences can be observed in an image's general lightness or darkness when it is compared to adjacent orthoimage file coverages. Tonal balancing may be performed over a group of images during the mosaicking process which may serve to lighten or darken adjacent images for better color tone matching.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Compliance with the accuracy standard was ensured by the placement of photo identifiable ground control points and the collection of airborne GPS data.  The elevation data were generated by autocorrelation and manual processes.  An RMS value for each tile was calculated based on the photos utilized in the production of the tile by comparing the AT X and Y coordinates.  This value represents an estimate of the accuracy of the horizontal coordinate measurements in the tile expressed in U.S. Survey Feet.
Quantitative_Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Value:.324 survey feet
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Explanation:
The horizontal accuracy of the orthorectified images is mainly determined by the accuracy of the aerotriangulation and digital elevation model (DEM).  The DEM accuracy assessment was achieved by comparing the aerotriangulation-derived elevation with the elevation of the DEM at the same X and Y coordinates.  In addition, visual examination was employed to assess all tiles and its relative edge match.  All results were examined for consistency and its compliance with the NSSDA accuracy standard.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:HAS Images, Inc
Publication_Date:2003
Title:
PA20065
Source_Scale_Denominator:19200
Type_of_Source_Media:stable-base material
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:20030413
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Source Photography
Source_Contribution:
Source imagery for tile production
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:HAS Images, Inc
Publication_Date:2003
Title:
PA20064
Source_Scale_Denominator:19200
Type_of_Source_Media:Stable-base material
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:20030413
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Source Photography
Source_Contribution:
Source imagery for tile production
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:HAS Images, Inc
Publication_Date:2003
Title:
PA20063
Source_Scale_Denominator:19200
Type_of_Source_Media:Stable-base material
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:20030413
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Source Photography
Source_Contribution:
Source imagery for tile production
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:HAS Images, Inc
Publication_Date:2003
Title:
PA11047
Source_Scale_Denominator:19200
Type_of_Source_Media:Stable-base material
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:20030413
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Source Photography
Source_Contribution:
Source imagery for tile production
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:BAE ADR
Publication_Date:20040227
Title:
SCPA Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
Type_of_Source_Media:paper, digital
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:20040227
Source_Currentness_Reference:
publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
DEM
Source_Contribution:
Used to provide ground elevations for the orthorectification process
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:TerraSurv
Publication_Date:20040227
Title:
SCPA Control
Type_of_Source_Media:paper, digital
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:20040227
Source_Currentness_Reference:
publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Control
Source_Contribution:
The control provides a means for referencing the project source photography to a geodetic reference frame
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Source photography:  natural color stable base.  Control: airborne GPS supplemented with photo identifiable field control. Scanning:  Z/I Imaging PhotoScan flatbed metric scanner.  Aerotriangulation:  Photo-T.  Elevation Model:  autocorrelation and manual collection.  Radiometric Balancing:  Proprietary and COTS Software (PhotoShop). Orthorectification:  Z/I Ortho Pro 4.0 software package.  Mosaic:  Z/I Ortho Pro 4.0 software package.  Processed on Windows NT/2000 systems.

The ground control and airborne GPS data was integrated into a rigid network through the completion of a fully analytical aerotriangulation adjustment.  The original aerial film was scanned at a resolution of 21 microns.  The scans were produced using Z/I Imaging PhotoScan flatbed metric scanners.  The scanned images were then used as input, along with ground control, airborne GPS data and camera calibration data into a Z/I Imaging softcopy system for final adjustment.  

The digital orthophotography was produced in natural color at an ortho scale of 1:2400 with a 2- foot pixel resolution.  A step-by-step breakdown of the digital orthophoto production process follows.  
1.  A representative number of raster image files were visually checked for image quality on the workstation.  
2.  The digital image files were oriented on the digital orthophoto production workstation.  The following information was then loaded onto the workstation.  - The camera calibration parameters and flight line direction. - ground control and pass point locations. - The exterior orientation parameters from the aerotriangulation process. - ASCII file containing the corner coordinates of the orthophotos. - The digital elevation model in a DGN format. - Project-specific requirements such as final sheet size and resolution. - Orientation parameters developed from the aerotriangulation solution.  
3.  A coordinate transformation based on the camera calibration fiducial coordinates was then undertaken.  This transformation allowed the conversion of every measured element of the plates to a sample/line location.  Each pixel in an image was then referenced by sample and line (its horizontal and vertical position) and matched to project control.  The newly rectified image was visually checked for pixel drop-out and/or other artifacts that may degrade the final orthophoto image.  
4. DTM data was imported and written to the correct subdirectory on disk.  The final digital orthophotos were referenced to the Pennsylvania State Plane coordinates, South Zone, NAD83, Survey Foot. 
5. The DTM file was reinspected for missing or erroneous data points.  
6.  A complete differential rectification was carried out using an exponential algorithm that removed image displacement due to topographic relief, tip and tilt of the aircraft at the moment of exposure, and radial distortion within the camera.  Each final orthophoto was produced at a scale of 1/200 with a 1-foot pixel resolution.  
7.  Each digital orthophoto image was visually checked for accuracy on the workstation screen.  The digital orthophotos were then edge-matched using a module of the Ortho Pro software package.  
8.  Once the orthophotos were inspected and approved for accuracy, the files were copied to the network and downloaded by the orthophoto finishing department.  This production unit was responsible for radiometrically correcting the orthophotos prior to completing the mosaicking and clipping of the final tiles.  
9.  The processed images were mosaicked using the Ortho Pro software.  File names were assigned.  
10.  The finishing department performed final visual checks for orthophoto image quality.  The images were inspected using Adobe Photoshop, which enabled the technician to remove dust and lint from the image files interactively. 
11.  The final orthophoto images were written out into compressed MrSID format, using 10:1 compression, untiled, Arc/Info readable, GeoTIFF format.
Process_Date:20040227
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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method:Raster
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name:Lambert Conformal Conic
Lambert_Conformal_Conic:
Standard_Parallel:39.933333
Standard_Parallel:40.966667
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian:-77.750000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin:39.333333
False_Easting:1968500.000000
False_Northing:0.00000
Lambert Conformal Conic
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method:row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution:2.0
Ordinate_Resolution:2.0
Planar_Distance_Units:Survey Foot
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name:North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name:Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis:6378137.00
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio:298.2572221
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA)
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
115 Land and Water building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:16801
Country:United States
Contact_Voice_Telephone:(814) 865 - 8792
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:pasda@psu.edu
Distribution_Liability:
The USER shall indemnify, save harmless, and, if requested, defend those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data, their officers, agents, and employees from and against any suits, claims, or actions for injury, death, or property damage arising out of the use of or any defect in the FILES or any accompanying documentation. Those parties involved with the development and distribution excluded any and all implied warranties, including warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose and makes no warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the FILES or accompanying documentation, including its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The FILES and documentation are provided "as is" and the USER assumes the entire risk as to its quality and performance. Those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the FILES or any accompanying documentation.
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:20051229
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA)
Contact_Position:Metadata Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
115 Land and Water building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:16802
Country:United States
Contact_Voice_Telephone:(814) 865 - 8792
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:pasda@psu.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name:FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version:FGDC-STD-001-1998
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