Physiographic Provinces 1:500,000


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources
Publication_Date:1995
Title:
Physiographic Provinces 1:500,000
Edition:Version 1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Harrisburg, PA
Publisher:Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
Online_Linkage: ftp://www.pasda.psu.edu/pub/pasda/dcnr/pags/pags_physprov5k.zip
Online_Linkage: http://www.pasda.psu.edu
Description:
Abstract:
Late in 1994, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey was
asked to develop a digital physiographic provinces map at 1:100,000 scale. The
then-available physiographic provinces map was compiled by the Survey at
1:500,000 scale and published at 1:2,000,000 scale in 1989. A new physiographic
provinces map was recompiled on county 1:50,000-scale topographic maps having
20-foot contour intervals. Boundaries based primarily on geology were positioned
using  published geological maps. Most boundaries were positioned by topographic
interpretation. The use of a 20-foot contour interval (a 200-foot interval was
used in 1989) resulted in the repositioning of some boundaries. New
scale-enhanced understanding of topographic/geologic patterns in the Appalachian
Plateaus province resulted in the creation of three new sections and the revision
of other section boundaries. The new compilation was reduced 50 percent and
transferred to 1:100,000-scale mylar base maps. The province and section
boundaries and the late Wisconsinan glacial border were digitized from the
mylars, edgematched, assembled into a single dataset, and attributed with
physiographic province and section names using UNIX-based Arc/Info. The late
Wisconsinan glacial border, which coincides with province and section boundaries
in some places, was copied to a separate dataset and removed from the dataset
containing the province and section boundaries. There are two datasets for the
late Wisconsinan glacial border and the physiographic province and section
boundaries. The original datasets are accurate at 1:100,000 scale. The other
datasets have been generalized to 1:500,000-scale accuracy for more regional
work.
A companion dataset consisting of the state and county boundaries of Pennsylvania
was compiled from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1:100,000-scale
digital-line-graph (DLG) files for boundaries. The dataset has been attributed
with the county names.
Purpose:
These datasets are intended for use in geographic-information-system (GIS) applications and other software applications where vector digital data are needed for the physiographic provinces and sections, and the late Wisconsinan glacial border in Pennsylvania. The data can be used for spatial analysis and for preparation of cartographic displays.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1995
Currentness_Reference:
publication date
Status:
Progress:Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate:-80.5181
East_Bounding_Coordinate:-74.6170
North_Bounding_Coordinate:42.2340
South_Bounding_Coordinate:39.6930
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus:ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword:Physiographic provinces
Theme_Keyword:Physiographic sections
Theme_Keyword:Geomorphology
Theme_Keyword:Glacial border (late Wisconsinan)
Theme_Keyword:Geoscientific Information
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:none
Place_Keyword:Pennsylvania
Access_Constraints: The data for the physiographic provinces and late Wisconsinan glacial border may be used provided that credit for the original (unaltered) datasets is given to the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.
Use_Constraints:
The datasets for the physiographic provinces and late Wisconsinan glacial border
are provided as matched datasets in their respective accuracies of 1:100,000
scale and 1:500,000 scale. Overlaying the datasets for physiographic provinces or
glacial borders that have 1:100,000-scale accuracy with the datasets that have
1:500,000-scale accuracy will yield inconsistent results. The user is also
advised not to use the datasets beyond their stated accuracy. To do so may yield
unusual, undesirable, or incorrect results.
The USER shall save the Commonwealth harmless from any suits, claims, or actions
arising out of the use of or any defect in the data files or accompanying
documentation.
The Commonwealth excludes any and all implied warranties and makes no warranty or
representation with respect to the data files or accompanying documentation,
including quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular
purpose. These data files and documentation are provided as is and the user
assumes the entire risk as to their quality and performance.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person:Christine E. Miles
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey. P.O. Box 8453
City:Harrisburg
State_or_Province:PA
Postal_Code:17105-8453
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:717-787-8162
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone:717-783-7267
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:miles.christine@a1.dcnr.state.pa.us
Data_Set_Credit:
Physiographic boundaries and the late Wisconsinan glacial border were compiled by
W. D. Sevon on
1:100,000-scale mylar maps. Digitizing by W. H. Stoner (photogrammetric
technician) from the mylar maps. Map editing and layout by C. E. Miles; map
design by C. E. Miles and T. G. Whitfield. Intermediate digital work by W. H.
Stoner, C. E. Miles, J. G. Kuchiniski (cartographic supervisor), and T. G.
Whitfield.
Final digital work by T. G. Whitfield and C. E. Miles. All are staff members in
the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Department of Conservation and
Natural Resources, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
DEC Vax using Vax Arc/Info (v. 6.1.2)
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The published geologic map (Berg and others, 1980) and source materials used for that map (Berg and Dodge, 1981) were the basis for the polygon and arc attributes, except for the lithology attributes of some units, which were modified in the data set from the lithologies listed in the explanation of the 1980 map, based on a review in 1998 by geologists in the Geologic Mapping Division of the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (PaGS).
Attributes were reviewed by staff of the PaGS by (1) comparing check plots with the source maps; (2) visually checking attributes on a display of the map data on a computer workstation; (3) checking printouts of the attributes; and (4) running a macro to ensure correctness and consistency of polygon attributes. Based on these reviews, the attributes are believed to be accurate.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Complete chain-node topology is present. The data set was checked for polygon closure, erroneous or duplicate arcs, incorrect intersections, overshoots and undershoots, label errors, node errors, and appropriate fuzzy tolerances.
Completeness_Report:
The data set represents the regional bedrock geology of the Pennsylvania portion of the Jamestown 30- by 60-minute quadrangle. The bedrock geology maps from which the contacts in this data set were derived show the rock units that crop out at the surface or that are present beneath the soil or beneath relatively thin surficial deposits. The contacts of the soils themselves, or of surficial deposits such as alluvium, colluvium, and glacial till and outwash, are not included in the source materials, nor are they included in this data set. Because the data set represents regional geology, some of the bedrock geologic units are
(1) generalized, (2) combined with other units, or (3) slightly exaggerated in areal extent so
that they may be represented at 1:250,000 scale (the scale of the 1980 map).
The data set does not include all of the information shown on the 1980 geologic map. For
example, the data set does not contain glacial boundaries, inset maps, marginal type, cross
sections, and the base information, such as roads, streams, and political boundaries, shown
on the 1980 map.
The lithologies in the polygon attribute table (items LITH1, LITH2, and LITH3) were
modified from the geologic descriptions of the units in the map explanation of the 1980
map, based on a review in 1998 by PaGS staff geologists. The scope of the 1980 map did
not include the mapping of lithologies, but rather the mapping of geologic formations
which, in most cases, consist of more than one lithology. The lithologic designations in the
explanation of the 1980 map are generalized and are not based on detailed field mapping or
statistical analyses. Moreover, the lithologies of many geologic units vary considerably
both laterally and vertically. Therefore, the dominant lithology (volumetrically) assigned to
a given unit in the data set may constitute only a minor part of that unit in local areas.
Additionally, the lithologies designated for each unit are generalized based on the areal
extent of the unit within the entire state. In cases where a geologic unit contains members
and other subunits that are present in only one region of the state, the lithologies for those
subunits and members are included in the data sets for all 30- by 60-minute quadrangles in
which the geologic unit occurs. Thus, some lithologies that are included in the data set for a
given 30- by 60-minute quadrangle may not occur within the areal extent of that
quadrangle.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The horizontal positional accuracy of the data is that of the 1980 "Geologic Map of
Pennsylvania," which was compiled and published at 1:250,000 scale. The base map
on which the 1980 map was compiled is derived from U.S. Geological Survey 1- by 2-
degree quadrangles, which meet National Map Accuracy Standards for their scale of
1:250,000. The difference in positional accuracy between the locations of the geologic
contacts in the field and their digitized map locations is not known; however, because
of the nature of the compilation and the source materials used, the digitized locations
may be off the true field locations by several hundred feet locally.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Berg, T. M., Geyer, A. R., Edmunds, W. E., and others, compilers
Publication_Date:1980
Title:
Geologic map of Pennsylvania
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:Map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey Map
Issue_Identification:1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Publisher:Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
Source_Scale_Denominator:250000
Type_of_Source_Media:Paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1980
Source_Currentness_Reference:
publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Berg and others (1980)
Source_Contribution:
Bedrock geologic contacts; lithologies
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Berg, T. M., and Dodge, C. M., compilers and editors
Publication_Date:1981
Title:
Atlas of preliminary geologic quadrangle maps of Pennsylvania
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:Atlas
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey Map
Issue_Identification:61
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Publisher:Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
Source_Scale_Denominator:62500 (approximate)
Type_of_Source_Media:Paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1981
Source_Currentness_Reference:
Publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Berg and Dodge (1981)
Source_Contribution:
Bedrock geologic contacts
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
A stable-base blackline mylar print was prepared of the geologic contact lines from
artwork that was used to publish the western half of the 1980 state geologic map (Berg
and others, 1980). Latitude/longitude crosshairs were manually placed on the mylar
print at 15-minute intervals using the latitude/longitude ticks from the base map of the
1980 geologic map as a guide for positioning. The latter base map had been mosaicked
in two overlays (drainage features and cultural features) from stable-base mylar prints of
the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard series 1:250,000-scale 1- by 2-degree
quadrangle maps.
The blackline mylar print was scanned, converted to a grid using ARC/INFO software,
and georeferenced. In an attempt to match as closely as possible the projection of the
USGS 1- by 2-degree quadrangle maps that were used as the base for the 1980 map,
the georeferenced grid was projected to transverse mercator using the following
parameters:
Projection: Transverse
Units: meters
Spheroid: Clarke1866
Parameters:
1.00000           /*scale factor at central meridian
-77 45 0.000    /*longitude of central meridian
40 52 30.000    /*latitude of origin
0.00000           /*false easting (meters)
0.00000           /*false northing (meters)
The scanned image was compared on screen with vector files for roads and streams
imported from USGS standard 1:100,000-scale digital-line-graph (DLG) files. This
comparison, as well as subsequent check plots, revealed that there were inherent
problems and inconsistencies in the 1:250,000-scale base map used for the 1980 geologic
map that made it difficult to obtain proper alignment of geologic contacts with streams
and roads in the georeferenced digital data set. To obtain additional control, the source
maps drawn by the compilers of the 1980 map were examined. These source maps
contained the geologic units shown on the 1980 map, but were drawn on paper 7.5-
minute or 15-minute quadrangle base maps, which had been transcribed and published at
page size in Berg and Dodge (1981). Four page-sized 7.5-minute quadrangle maps
(Hammett, Harborcreek, North East, and Wattsburg) were scanned, converted to grids,
and georeferenced using the latitude and longitude at the four corners of each quadrangle
for control. Following projection to transverse mercator, the roads and streams on the
images of the page-sized maps were compared on screen to the roads and streams from
the USGS 1:100,000-scale DLG files. Most of the roads and streams from the DLG files
fit those shown on the scanned images of the source maps to within 60 meters; thus, the
page-sized source maps were considered to be good control for determining the
placement of the geologic contacts at 1:250,000 scale.
Process_Date:1997-98
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Using the projected grids described in the step above as background images, the data set
of the geologic contacts of the Jamestown quadrangle prepared by the USGS-WRD in
the late 1980's and early 1990's was edited on screen so that the polygons fit the locations
shown on the scanned image. This process, as well as subsequent processes described
below, required editing or redigitizing every arc in the data set. Label points were also
moved where necessary so that they remained inside the appropriate polygons following
editing of the arcs. The neatline of the USGS-WRD data set was deleted and replaced
with a neatline constructed from a data set of 7.5-minute quadrangle boundaries covering
Pennsylvania that had been modified by the PaGS from a data set prepared by the USGS
for the entire country. The state boundary of the USGS-WRD data set was deleted and
replaced with a state boundary compiled from the USGS standard 1:100,000-scale DLG
file for boundaries.
The arcs in the digital data set were adjusted where necessary to fit the contacts on the
images made from the source maps. As a result of this procedure, although the geologic
contacts and the shapes of the units are generally the same as those on the 1980 geologic
map, there are some differences, as follows: (1) to conform to the regional scale of the
compilation (1:250,000), some tightly curved contacts on the source maps were
generalized in the data set and units of small areal extent were exaggerated, but the
generalization on the whole is less than that on the 1980 map; and (2) the degree of
exaggeration that was employed by the compilers of the 1980 map in regard to the
1:250,000-scale base features (e.g., moving contacts away from roads and streams) was
ignored where contacts were digitized from the source maps.
Five attributes (UNITNO, AGE, LITH1, LITH2, and LITH3) were added to the polygon
attribute table (jamgeo.pat), and the two polygon attributes that had been added by the
USGS-WRD (FM and NAME) were redefined (MAP_SYMBOL and NAME). Six
attributes (CONTACT, FAULT, BORDER, CONTACTLINE, FAULTLINE, and
BORDERLINE) were added to the arc attribute table (jamgeo.aat), and the attribute
values were assigned to the arcs as part of the editing process.
Process_Date:1998
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Following the extensive editing, redigitizing, and attributing of the polygons and arcs,
various check plots were prepared and proofread in order to verify the locational
accuracy of the lines and to check for errors in arc attributes and in labels of geologic
units. Additional checks were made on the computer workstation for label and
attribute errors.
A script was prepared in Arc Macro Language (AML) to ensure correctness and
consistency of polygon attributes. Using the script, the item "MAP_SYMBOL" was
selected for each polygon, and the correct attributes for UNITNO, NAME, AGE, LITH1,
LITH2, and LITH3 were calculated based on the map symbol.
After all corrections were made, the data set was projected to a new data set in a
geographic coordinate system (units in decimal degrees). The latter data set was
exported as an ARC/INFO export file (jamgeo.e00) and was converted to polygon and
arc shapefiles (jampoly.shp and jamarc.shp) using the ARCSHAPE command.
Process_Date:1998
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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method:Vector
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name:Lambert Conformal Conic
Lambert_Conformal_Conic:
Lambert Conformal Conic
Standard_Parallel:33
Standard_Parallel:45
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian:-78
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin:0.0
False_Easting:0.0
False_Northing:0.0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method:coordinate pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Planar_Distance_Units:meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name:North American Datum of 1927
Ellipsoid_Name:Clark 1866
Semi-major_Axis:6378206.4
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio:294.98
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA)
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
115 Land and Water building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:16802
Country:United States
Contact_Voice_Telephone:(814) 865 -8792
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:pasda@psu.edu
Distribution_Liability:
The USER shall indemnify, save harmless, and, if requested, defend those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data, their officers, agents, and employees from and against any suits, claims, or actions for injury, death, or property damage arising out of the use of or any defect in the FILES or any accompanying documentation. Those parties involved with the development and distribution excluded any and all implied warranties, including warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose and makes no warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the FILES or accompanying documentation, including its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The FILES and documentation are provided "as is" and the USER assumes the entire risk as to its quality and performance. Those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the FILES or any accompanying documentation.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name:ARC/INFO export
Format_Version_Number:7.0
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: http://www.pasda.psu.edu
Fees:free
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:19981026
Metadata_Review_Date:19981026
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person:Christine E. Miles
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:Mailing address
Address:
Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, P. O. Box 8453
City:Harrisburg
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:17105-8453
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:717-783-5812
Contact_TDD/TTY_Telephone:1-800-654-5984 (TDD) Pa. AT&T relay service
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone:717-783-7267
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:miles.christine@dcnr.state.pa.us
Hours_of_Service:8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m., Monday-Friday
Metadata_Standard_Name:Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version:FGDC-STD-001-1998
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