Pennsylvania conservation gap fish habitat models; 90 meter resolution


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Wayne L. Myers, Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:2000
Title:
Pennsylvania conservation gap fish habitat models; 90 meter resolution
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, PA
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Online_Linkage: http://www.pasda.psu.edu
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Wayne L. Myers
Publication_Date:2000
Title:
Pennsylvania conservation gap analysis vertebrate species habitat models
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, PA
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Description:
Abstract:
These layers represent potential habitat models for fish species in Pennsylvania.  The model associates occurrence of suitable habitat with key environmental factors that can be mapped over the entire region.  These key factors include vegetative land cover, presence of human activity, elevation, topographic position, wetland characteristics and stream size and proximity.  Areas of potential species presence were tabulated based on current and historical information and a series of conditional statements proceeded using layers derived to depict the key factors on a landscape scale.
Purpose:
The PA Gap Analysis habitat models are compared in a collective manner to the distribution and extent of lands serving long-term conservation purposes. Mismatches of a substantial and extensive nature are identified as broad-scale "gaps" in the conservation safety net. Gap analysis is a "coarse filter" geographic approach to conservation, and is meant to supplement rather than supplant detailed work on a site level for species of special concern.
Supplemental_Information:
For use at 1:100,000 or smaller scale.
Supplemental_Information:
Further information about the Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Project at: http://www.erri.psu.edu/web/projects/gappage.htm
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1993
Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Status:
Progress:Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency:None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate:-81.00815292
East_Bounding_Coordinate:-74.19768625
North_Bounding_Coordinate:42.75504061
South_Bounding_Coordinate:38.87123889
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus:ISO 19115 Topic Categories
Theme_Keyword:conservation gap analysis
Theme_Keyword:gap analysis
Theme_Keyword:fish
Theme_Keyword:vertebrate species
Theme_Keyword:biological
Theme_Keyword:habitat range
Theme_Keyword:biota
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus:None
Place_Keyword:Pennsylvania
Access_Constraints:None
Use_Constraints:
These data are not to be redistributed for commercial profit.  Reproduction or redistribution of this digital data set without permission of the Originator/Publisher is expressly forbidden.  The Originator and Publisher should be clearly cited in any product derived from this data.  Any modifications to this data must be described in any digital or hardcopy product derived from this data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person:Wayne L. Myers
Contact_Organization:Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
Land and Water Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:PA
Postal_Code:16802
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:814-863-0002
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:wlm@psu.edu
Data_Set_Credit:
Fish models were compiled by David Argent, Jay Stauffer, and Robert Carline from Penn State University and reviewed by Paula Ferreri, Penn State University; John Arway and Andy Schiels, Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission; and Ellen van Snik-Gray, National Park Service
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Habitat matrices determining key environmental factors were developed and delivered to expert reviewers for comment.  These matrices are the basis for all resulting conditional statements regarding the final result in the habitat model layer.  Validation sets were based on checklists derived from observational studies.  Full information on these studies can be found in the project report available from: http://www.gappage.psu.edu
Completeness_Report:
Complete coverage for the state of Pennsylvania.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Corresponds to accuracy of source derived from 30x30 meter grid classification of satellite imagery as shifted to match other data.  Some verification and clarification of position and classification has been done through overlay with USGS Digital Orthophotograph quarter-quadrangles
Quantitative_Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Assessment:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Value:100
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Explanation:
This value is an estimate in meters based on potential registration errors introduced by shifting the TM data to match ancillary data.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:David Argent
Publication_Date:1998
Title:
Fish Species Occurrence Database
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Publisher:Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission
Online_Linkage: http://www.pasda.psu.edu/documents.cgi/pafish/pfbc-pafish.xml
Source_Scale_Denominator:24000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date:1975
Ending_Date:1995
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
fish occurrence
Source_Contribution:
historical sampling observations for fish species
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Wayne L. Myers, Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:1999
Title:
Vegetative land cover for Pennsylvania, 30 meter resolution
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, PA
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Source_Scale_Denominator:100000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1993
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
vegetative land cover
Source_Contribution:
vegetation types
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:1998
Title:
Urban Areas of Pennsylvania
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, PA
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Online_Linkage: ftp://www.pasda.psu.edu/pub/pasda/urban/urban.zip
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Environmental Resource Research Institute
Publication_Date:199807
Title:
Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Project
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, Pa
Publisher:Environmental Resource Research Institute
Source_Scale_Denominator:24000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1998
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
urbanized land
Source_Contribution:
areas of human activity and disturbance
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Wayne L. Myers, Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:1999
Title:
Land cover/urbanized lands for Pennsylvania
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, PA
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Source_Scale_Denominator:100000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1993
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
land cover/urbanized
Source_Contribution:
combination of land cover and urbanized land further classifies habitat possibilities by including urban and suburban areas containing vegetation
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), EROS Data Center
Publication_Date:1999
Title:
National Elevation Dataset for Pennsylvania
Edition:1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Sioux Falls, SD
Publisher:U.S. Geological Survey
Source_Scale_Denominator:24000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1998
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
digital elevation model
Source_Contribution:
elevations for habitat classification and derivation of slope and aspect identification
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)
Publication_Date:1998
Title:
EMAP Hexagonal Tessellation for Pennsylvania
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, PA
Publisher:Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Online_Linkage: http://www.pasda.psu.edu/documents.cgi/gap/gap-pahex.xml
Source_Scale_Denominator:24000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1998
Source_Currentness_Reference:
publication date
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
hexagon areas
Source_Contribution:
635 sq.km. hexagon grid used by Gap for compilation of species occurrences
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Environmental Resources Research Institute
Publication_Date:1998
Title:
Streams of Pennsylvania
Edition:1
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Publisher:Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection
Source_Scale_Denominator:24000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1998
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Pennsylvania streams
Source_Contribution:
stream size and location for habitat classification and derivation of buffered layers
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Wayne L. Myers, Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:2000
Title:
Wetland areas in Pennsylvania
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, PA
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC)
Publication_Date:1993
Title:
MRLC Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes, Pennsylvania
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form:remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:unknown
Publisher:MRLC
Online_Linkage: http://www.epa.gov/docs/grd/mrlc/
Source_Scale_Denominator:100000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1993
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
wetlands
Source_Contribution:
location of wetland areas and for derivation of buffered layers
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:1999
Title:
Topographic positions in Pennsylvania
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, Pa.
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Source_Scale_Denominator:24000
Type_of_Source_Media:CD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:Unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
topographic position
Source_Contribution:
slope and elevation information
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:2000
Title:
Disturbed Lands in Pennsylvania
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, Pa.
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Source_Scale_Denominator:100000
Type_of_Source_Media:CD-ROM
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:1993
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
Disturbed lands
Source_Contribution:
identification of agricultural and paved areas
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:Joseph A. Bishop
Publication_Date:2000
Title:
Ordered small watersheds of Pennsylvania
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:University Park, Pa.
Publisher:Pennsylvania Gap Analysis Program. Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University
Source_Scale_Denominator:24000
Type_of_Source_Media:online
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date:unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference:
ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation:
ordered watersheds
Source_Contribution:
watershed boundaries and stream order (size) data to inform the models
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Habitat matrices were developed for each of the three animal groups.  Columns represented the potential habitat variables mentioned in the data layer descriptions and rows represent individual species.  Each species row includes the species
Other than noted exceptions variables are coded with numbers that range from one to four which rates each variable as to its relevance to that specific habitat model.  The code descriptions are as follows:
1 = habitat type required by species (primary use)
2 = habitat type may be used by species (secondary use)
3 = habitat type not used by species (avoided)
4 = not applicable to species (variable not used in model)
In addition to the previously described variables a minimum area variable was included to help locate areas suitable for species that are sensitive to landscape fragmentation.  Minimum area was calculated via a three-step process with the Spatial Analyst. The first step isolated and labeled potential habitat patches; the second step calculated the actual area (ha) of each habitat patch; and, the third step removed patches that were either too big or too small to be habitat.  This variable was frequently used for birds that are known only to nest in habitat larger than a minimum size.  The matrix lists the minimum size in hectares.  Also, a few reptile species included this variable in their model.  For reptiles the variable had a coded value that indicated a minimum or maximum area of open water for habitat.  The codes are as follows:
1 = less than 4 ha
2 = greater than 4 ha
Each matrix includes a notes [NOTES] or special requirements column as well.  Some notes were accounted for in the modeling process while others listed habitat characteristics that were too small to be addressed by the available data layers.
Process_Date:1999
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person:Joseph A. Bishop
Contact_Organization:Environmental Resources Research Institute
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, Land and Water Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:Pennsylvania
Postal_Code:16802
Country:United States
Contact_Voice_Telephone:814-863-0291
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:jab190@psu.edu
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The modeling process for each species proceeded as a series of conditional statements constructed to identify habitat and eliminated non-habitat areas.  The previously mentioned layers were manipulated with the Spatial Analyst extension of ArcView geographic information system (GIS) software to process the models within a raster GIS environment.  Each layer was converted into an ARC/INFO grid format containing grid cells with a 30m resolution.   Upon review of the habitat matrix for a species the exact sequence of conditional statements was established.
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The Vegetative Land Cover was reclassified based on matrix values.  Non-habitat values (3's) for all model variables noted immediately.  An area of non-habitat for any variable will not be altered by another variable.
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Note variables coded as "4 - Not applicable" to the model.  It's important to envision the interactions of the variables.  If, for example, an urban variable has a code of 4 then the Vegetation Land Cover would take precedence over those areas that would otherwise be treated as urban.
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Wetlands, including streams, were typically addressed next.  The coincidence of a wetland coded 2, secondary habitat, and the vegetation coded-1, primary habitat, returned a code 2.  This is coupled with the coincidence of a wetland coded 1, primary habitat, and the vegetation coded 2, secondary habitat, returning a code 1.  A wetland coded 3, non-habitat, will return a code 3.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
wetlands
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Stream modifying conditions were addressed next.  This step either selected streams outside the proper size class and removed or degraded the classification within the stream buffer or degraded the stream buffer based on the disturbance level of the stream buffer.  This was always a degrading process.  Streams initially classed as primary or secondary would be reduced to secondary or non-habitat respectively.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
Pennsylvania streams
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Due to their destructive influence urban areas are always treated as a degrading layer.  If urban areas have been classed as secondary all coincident areas previously primary habitat will be returned as secondary.  Also, urban areas classed as non-habitat will always have a value of 3.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
urbanized land
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The minimum area and elevation variables were considered next.  Steps 3-5 can be thought of as variables that modify other variables where minimum area and elevation are more extractive.  Any area too small (or large) or outside the correct elevation and /or topographic position zone will be converted to non-habitat.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
digital elevation model
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
topographic position
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
species specific
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The process of locating potential habitat for each vertebrate species includes identifying each species' potential range in Pennsylvania as well.  Early in the process of PA-GAP The Nature Conservancy compiled a database of species' occurrences for Pennsylvania.  Based on current and historic information species presence was tabulated in each of 211 hexagonal areas that form a lattice over Pennsylvania.  These hexagons were originally designed as a sampling unit for the EPA's regional EMAP program and have an area of 635 km2.  All hexagons that contained records for a particular species formed that species' preliminary range.   Once these hexagons were selected surrounded unselected hexagons, or "holes", were also added to the original set.  Finally, to eliminate the unnatural appearance of the hexagon boundaries, this hexagon layer was used to select all watersheds from the small watersheds layer.  The layer was the same layer used to create the fish habitat models.  All watersheds whose centers were contained within the hexagon boundary created a new boundary.  With a series of ARC/INFO commands the set of watersheds that were selected were copied into a new layer and their internal boundaries were dissolved to form each species' accepted potential range.  Each range was checked and, if necessary, edited for final processing.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:
EPA hexagon grids, ordered watersheds
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Once the potential range map was complete the true potential habitat map could be created.  Each potential range map was converted from its original ARC/INFO vector format into an ARC/INFO grid format.  Areas of non-potential range were assigned a NODATA value and this layer was used to MASK areas of Pennsylvania outside each species potential range.  A simple grid process created the final potential habitat layer for each species from the combination of the potential range layer and the original habitat layer initially calculated for the entire state.  This step was completed for all vertebrate species with restrictive ranges and omitted for ubiquitous species.
Process_Date:1999
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
To meet the national Gap specifications each final (30m) potential habitat grid was generalized to form a habitat grid with 90m cells.  Using the ARCINFO grid module two commands were used to process each final habitat.  The BLOCKMIN command classified groups of nine 30m cells into nine cells with the same value using the lowest cell value.  This command preserved the primary and secondary habitats when they occurred.  The second command, RESAMPLE, generalized the grid by forming one cell from each nine-cell group.
Process_Date:2000
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Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method:Raster
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name:Lambert Conformal Conic
Lambert_Conformal_Conic:
Lambert Conformal Conic
Standard_Parallel:33
Standard_Parallel:45
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian:-96
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin:39
False_Easting:0
False_Northing:0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method:Coordinate Pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution:30
Ordinate_Resolution:30
Planar_Distance_Units:meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name:North American Datum of 1927
Ellipsoid_Name:Clarke 1866
Semi-major_Axis:6378206
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio:294.9786982
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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Grid cells coded for habitat suitability
1 = Primary habitat
2 = Secondary habitat
3 = Non-habitat
NODATA = Outside potential range
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
See detailed description of PA GAP Analysis Project.
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA)
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
Land and Water Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:PA
Postal_Code:16802
Country:USA
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:pasda@psu.edu
Resource_Description:ftp://www.pasda.psu.edu/pub/pasda/gap/species/90meter/fish/paafcqh01010.zip
Distribution_Liability:
The USER shall indemnify, save harmless, and, if requested, defend those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data, their officers, agents, and employees from and against any suits, claims, or actions for injury, death, or property damage arising out of the use of or any defect in the FILES or any accompanying documentation. Those parties involved with the development and distribution excluded any and all implied warranties, including warranties or merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose and makes no warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the FILES or accompanying documentation, including its quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The FILES and documentation are provided "as is" and the USER assumes the entire risk as to its quality and performance. Those parties involved with the development and distribution of this data will not be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the FILES or any accompanying documentation.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name:ARCINFO exported coverage
Format_Version_Number:7.x
Format_Information_Content:
Native ArcInfo coverage exported to transfer file.  Zip compressed for download.
File_Decompression_Technique:Zip compression
Transfer_Size:ca.4 MB
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Access_Instructions:
http://www.pasda.psu.edu
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Offline_Option:
Offline_Media:CD-ROM
Recording_Capacity:
Recording_Density:650
Recording_Density_Units:megabytes
Recording_Format:ISO 9660
Fees:none
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date:20000227
Metadata_Review_Date:20001210
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (PASDA)
Contact_Position:Metadata Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type:mailing address
Address:
115 Land and Water Building
City:University Park
State_or_Province:PA
Postal_Code:16802
Country:USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone:814-865-8792
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone:814-865-3378
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address:pasda@psu.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name:FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version:FGDC-STD-001-1998
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